The Regeneration

   An era of relative economic progress and political stability during the third quarter of the 19th century. The Regeneration followed a period of intense political instability and uncertainty (1807-51), with invasions, wars, and civil wars, and represented the inception of modern economic and industrial development in Portugal. In terms of administrative continuity and governmental stability and accomplishment, the Regeneration was the most hopeful era of the constitutional monarchy (1834-1910). It began in 1851, with a military revolt led by the Duke of Saldanha, one of the conquerors and victors of the Patuleia revolt and civil war (1846-47) and was supported by various groups and factions that desired civic peace, order, and economic improvement.
   Of the Regeneration leaders, Fontes Pereira de Melo became the major personality and mastermind of this era, which witnessed the beginnings of Portugal's main railroad and road system, as well as the initiation of modern industrial and commercial activities. The Regeneration affected the economies of the Lisbon and Oporto regions more than the provinces, but the rural areas also benefited from the changes that came from the new economic activities.

Historical dictionary of Portugal 3rd ed.. . 2014.

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